[1 Samuel - General]

Gives a little insight into the family conditions of the Israelites at a time not long after the days of Samson and Ruth. It shows the deep religious sentiment prevailing amongst many of the people. The Tabernacle, in this study styled the Temple, was located at Shiloh, a few miles north of Jerusalem. The people by divine direction went annually to worship the Lord, offer sacrifice, etc., at the Feast time, the Passover. God seldom sent messages at that time. Perhaps that of the angel of the Lord who appeared to the father and mother of Samson, probably fifty years before, was the last direct communication between the Lord and any of his people Israel. R5615:1,5
Samuel is styled the first of the prophets of Israel. R5616:1 The Prophet Samuel established a new order of things. He did not do as others before him had done—have his place of residence to which all the people must go to ask his advice, counsel, judgment; but he introduced the circuit judge system and went from place to place holding a court—not so much to condemn anybody but rather to advise those who desired advice. R5628:5
Samuel reviews his career, 1 Samuel 12:13-25 R3222

[1 Sam. 1:11]

I will give him —A prebirth consecration showing a prenatal influence insuring a mental and spiritual inheritance tending towards godliness. R1671:3, R1882:2

[1 Sam. 1:15]

A sorrowful spirit —Ruach, mind, disposition. E318

[1 Sam. 1:19]

The LORD remembered her —With the miraculous interposition of divine power quickening the dormant and inoperative natural forces. R560:6*

[1 Sam. 1:20]

Samuel —Meaning "In God's name." R5615:2

[1 Sam. 1:22]

Weaned —The time when he was able to do without his mother's care, probably ten to twelve years old. R5615:2, R4091:2
Abide for ever —Many seemingly consecrated people hold back their most precious possessions, their children, from the Lord and incline to devote them to some worldly calling. R4091:2 It is the privilege of consecrated parents to present themselves and all they have to the Lord, including their children. R4091:2

[1 Sam. 1:27]

For this child —Samuel was desired, prayed for, prepared for. R5615:3 The story of the parents of Samuel gives us a glimpse of the God-fearing piety prevalent amongst many in Israel. R3102:5, R4090:3, R5615:1

[1 Sam. 1:28]

Lent to the LORD —This Jewish custom is largely responsible for the consecration services observed by some today. Q758:T

[1 Sam. 2:1]

Mine horn —Horns are symbols of power. T42

[1 Sam. 2:6]

Down to the grave —To sheol, oblivion, the state of death. E358
And bringeth up —By a resurrection out of sheol, oblivion. E358 Showing that those who go to hell don't stay there forever. HG556:4, HG734:6*

[1 Sam. 2:8]

For the pillars —The saints, the Little Flock. R1813:2
Of the earth —The new social order. R1813:2

[1 Sam. 2:11]

Did minister —He was a servant of the Lord by virtue of his being a servant to Eli, God's priest. R5615:5 It is a mistake to suppose that the early years of life, 10 years onward, should be largely spent in play. R4091:3
Unto the LORD —It is a mistake for parents to think that children cannot appreciate religious things at an early age. R4091:4

[1 Sam. 2:12]

Sons of Belial —While Eli's own influence was exemplary his sons were wicked in various ways, for which he became responsible. R5296:3 If weakness and indecision be a natural failing with us, we are not excusable in failing to fight against it. R1882:5

[1 Sam. 2:17]

The sin —They took more of the sacrifice than allowed in the divine arrangement. R5615:5

[1 Sam. 2:18]

But Samuel —As a natural result of favorable prenatal influence. R1671:3

[1 Sam. 2:22]

All that his sons did —Practicing immorality, misleading the people into unrighteousness when, as priests, they should have been instructors of the people in righteousness, both by precept and example. R5615:6

[1 Sam. 2:30]

I will honour —In my own due time and way. R2888:6, R2887:5,6 This principle holds good many ways. R5703:2

[1 Sam. 3:1]

Was precious —Scarce. R4091:5
No open vision —Visions and revelations were not then given; the Urim and Thummim answers had ceased. R5615:5

[1 Sam. 3:2]

Eyes began to wax dim —Eli was then about 70 to 80 years of age. R5615:5, R4091:5

[1 Sam. 3:9]

Speak, LORD —Indicating Samuel's readiness to do him service. R5297:1

[1 Sam. 3:10]

Samuel answered —Blessed shall we be if, like Samuel, when we hear the Lord's message we respond promptly. R4092:5
Thy servant heareth —We should be willing to receive the truth in whatever way the Lord is pleased to send it, whether from the mouth of a little child or from unlearned men. R5297:2 How often the servant wants to do all the talking and to have the Lord hear him and perform his will. R1882:5 Some mistakenly interpret the Lord's voice directing them in accordance with their own wills. R4092:5 Eli showed no resentment against Samuel, the channel the Lord had used. R5297:1

[1 Sam. 3:13]

I will judge —This was not the first time that the Lord had reproved Eli regarding the wrong course of his sons. R5615:6
Restrained them not —Hence he was a sharer in the penalty which came upon his sons. R5615:6

[1 Sam. 3:15]

And Samuel —Samuel exhibited the spirit of meekness; so we should speak sympathetically when telling of the trouble coming on Babylon. R4092:4

[1 Sam. 3:16]

Eli —Seems to represent the Great Company. R5297:5
Samuel —Seems to represent the Little Flock. R5297:5

[1 Sam. 3:18]

Told him every whit —It was a trial to Samuel to tell his friend and benefactor of the Lord's criticism and pronouncement of judgment. Sympathy and tenderness of heart must not prevent the Lord's faithful servants from speaking his message boldly. R5615:6
It is the LORD —Some in Nominal Christendom are not in sympathy with the trend of affairs. R5297:5 The Great Company are weak in standing forth, yet submissive in the time of trouble. R5297:5
Seemeth him good —If Eli was weak in some respects he was strong in others, as is shown in his humility and this beautiful example of absolute submission. R5297:2 We should all strive to have that attitude of mind that would be fully submissive to the divine decree. Q499:T Eli should have trained his sons in righteousness, otherwise they should have ceased to be members of his household and should have come under certain restraints, which he as a lawgiver should have enforced. R5296:6

[1 Sam. 4:1]

Now Israel went —Some twenty years after God's prediction of the calamities that would befall Eli and his family. R5626:1

[1 Sam. 4:2]

Israel was smitten —The evil example of the priestly office had an injurious effect upon the people. God was bound to punish them. R5626:1

[1 Sam. 4:3]

Fetch the ark —An attempt to invoke the assistance of religious symbols, thinking that God would not permit the Ark of the Covenant to be injured or captured. R5626:2 Thus evidencing faith in the divine institutions although their lives were corrupt. R3252:2

[1 Sam. 4:4]

Between the cherubims —Between love and power, above a foundation of justice, represented by the Mercy Seat. T124 Looking at the Mercy Seat as representing God's chariot or throne. R529:6*
Two sons of Eli —They were thieves and robbers, garbed as the priests of God; immoral, impure, posing as the representatives of the divine holiness. R5626:3 Apparently no reformation had taken place in all those twenty years. R5626:1

[1 Sam. 4:5]

A great shout —Their usual battle-hymn: Num.10:35. R5626:3

[1 Sam. 4:7]

The Philistines —The Philistines revered Jehovah, the God of Israel, when they returned the Ark of Jehovah to Israel. R2541:3

[1 Sam. 4:18]

When he made mention —Notwithstanding his weakness his heart was always loyal and true to God. R1882:3,4
He died —Although he was faithful at heart, in his character was too much of the "peace at any price" and not enough of that courage which is prepared to die for righteousness' sake. R5626:5

[1 Sam. 5:6]

Emerods —Hemorrhoids. R5626:5

[1 Sam. 6:8]

Lay it upon the cart —Contrary to law. God tolerated the ignorance of the Philistines who were not his people. R2003:2

[1 Sam. 6:19]

50,070 men —We are not to think of these men as destroyed in Second Death. R2003:1

[1 Sam. 6:20]

To whom shall he —This symbol of his presence. R2002:6

[1 Sam. 7:2]

Kirjath-jearim —Between Jaffa and Jerusalem in the Wady Ali. R1381:5

[1 Sam. 7:3]

Ashtaroth —Plural for Ashtoreth, a female diety, goddess of fertility and sexual relations. R5627:3
Prepare your hearts —By making a consecration unto the Lord. R3713:1
He will deliver you —Samuel was warranted in so telling the people because this was God's standing agreement with them. R5627:2

[1 Sam. 7:4]

Baalim —Plural for Baal, meaning "Overseer" or "Caretaker." R5627:2

[1 Sam. 7:5]

Mizpeh —Watchtower. R3218:2

[1 Sam. 7:6]

Mizpeh —Not the Mizpah east of Jordan where Jacob covenanted with Laban. R1381:5
Drew water —As the water was drawn from the depth of the earth, so their confession came from the depths of their hearts. R5627:4
Poured it out —Representing their vows of faithfulness to the Lord, which would be as irrevocable as the water poured out. R5627:4 Representing the truth which they could not gainsay, could not take back, even as water spilled upon the ground cannot be recovered. R5627:4
We have sinned —Confession was appropriate when asking God to receive them back into covenant relationship. R5627:3 The humility necessary in making such confession was profitable in their character-building. R5627:4
Samuel judged —As a judge, a counselor, he gave advice, gave decisions in respect to their affairs, disputes, etc. R5627:5

[1 Sam. 7:8]

He will save us —They were learning to look for help in the right direction. R5627:5 It is vain for the Lord's people to call upon the Lord for assistance and blessing while they are living in sin, in violation of their covenant and its obligations. R5627:5
Philistines —Our Philistines are our passions and weaknesses, and the oppositions of the world and the Adversary. R5627:6

[1 Sam. 7:9]

A sucking lamb —A type of "The Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world." (John 1:29) R5627:6

[1 Sam. 7:10]

They were smitten —As a result Samuel was recognized as the divine representative and judge of Israel. R4192:6
Before Israel —As God led, disciplined and delivered his ancient people, so now he bestows the same attentions upon his faithful Church. R1883:4

[1 Sam. 7:15]

Days of his life —From God's standpoint; even though the people meantime did have a king. R1882:3

[1 Sam. 8:1]

Made his sons judges —Their elevation to office proved detrimental to them, placing before them opportunities for dishonest gain. R1887:1

[1 Sam. 8:3]

Perverted judgment —They were unreliable. R5636:6 Samuel's integrity is shown by the fact that when it was proven to him that his sons were guilty of accepting bribes to pervert justice he promptly removed them from office. R3216:2

[1 Sam. 8:4]

Gathered themselves —They became fearful. They forgot that God was their real judge, their king, and that Samuel was only his mouthpiece. R3216:3

[1 Sam. 8:5]

Make us a king —Judges developed the Israelites individually; the kingdom developed them along national lines. Individual development prepares better for the Messiah. R4193:2, R4201:4 Commendable human prudence, but not in Israel's case. R1887:2, R4193:1 It is thus easy to see how Moses could have firmly established himself at the head of a great empire without difficulty. HG534:4
Like all the nations —They felt they were "out of style." R3216:4 Desiring a united kingdom. R4193:1 A desire to appear great themselves. R1887:4 As exemplified in the "broad-minded" policies of Solomon to be popular with neighboring kings. R2359:2, R2069:1They did not want to be a peculiar people. R2359:2

[1 Sam. 8:6]

Give us a king —Corresponding to the desire of the church early in the Gospel age to have an earthly head, a pope. R3217:2, R4200:1
And Samuel —Not attempting to decide the matter on his own responsibility; thereby setting us a fine example. R3216:5

[1 Sam. 8:7]

In all that they say —Changed to a monarchy by the Lord's permission but without his approval. OV10:2; A48
Rejected me —They already had a powerful, invisible king, before whom none of their enemies could stand. R1887:2 The Lord's promise, "I will restore thy judges" (Isa. 1:26) intimates the superiority of the republican form of government. R4193:2, R4201:4
Reign over them —Since God was Israel's king, Saul and his successors sat upon the throne of the Lord. R1979:1

[1 Sam. 8:8]

I brought them up —They were evidencing a lack of faith in past providences and weariness in welldoing. R1887:2

[1 Sam. 8:11]

This will be the manner —Not the Lord's idea of government, but his foretelling the actions of imperfect men exalted to power. R2046:1 Referring to Deut. 17:14-20. R1887:5 Instead of being sovereigns, the people would be the slaves of a sovereign. R5637:1 For three reasons: (1) his own imperfections; (2) his subjects' imperfections; and (3) the temptation to abuse power to maintain order. R4193:5 Immanuel's kingdom will be autocratic in the extreme. R4193:6

[1 Sam. 8:19]

Will have a king —Instead of the republican form of government established by the Lord. A48; R5636:3,6

[1 Sam. 8:22]

Make them a king —An example of an unfavorable answer to prayer. (See Hosea 13:9-11) R3217:4

[1 Sam. 9:2]

Choice young man —Tall, manly, well-balanced mentally, but not specially religious. R4197:1 His noble stature and physique may have been the result of divine foreordination. R4197:2
He was higher —Hence easily recognized later on by the witch of Endor. R2172:2, HG726:2 Such a type of man appealed strongly to the sentiments of the people. R4197:2 Though tall and athletic, he was also humble (I Sam. 15:17). R4197:4

[1 Sam. 9:6]

Cometh surely to pass —Pointing out that all things are known to God and that the prophet was God's special representative. R4197:1

[1 Sam. 9:12]

In the high place —Prohibited by Mosaic Law (Deut. 12:13, 14) but accepted by God until the Temple was built. R2045:6

[1 Sam. 9:19]

Will tell thee all —Samuel's occult powers were manifested under divine direction at a time when God used such powers amongst Israel. R5637:5

[1 Sam. 9:21]

Smallest of the tribes —Whose territory lay between the two principal tribes; thus he would be more likely to have the sympathy and cooperation of the people. R4197:2
The least of all —In selecting both Saul and David the Lord sought a meek and quiet spirit. R1888:2

[1 Sam. 10:1]

A vial of oil —Typifying the anointing of the holy Spirit. R4197:6, R5636:2
To be captain —Representing Jesus as the head of the Church. R3218:5

[1 Sam. 10:6]

Spirit of the LORD —Controlling his words and actions rather than enlightening his mind in respect to the deep things of God. R4197:5
Another man —Similarly, those who believe God's message and accept the anointing of the holy Spirit also find new aims, new impulses, new hopes, new desires. R4197:6

[1 Sam. 10:9]

Another heart —Fixed his mind upon the more sober things of life and God's relationship to these. R4197:5 In the sense that he no longer had the "disposition" to be a farmer, but a divine "disposition" to be a statesman. It did not signify that he had become a New Creature in Christ. R5637:4

[1 Sam. 10:10]

Spirit of God —An invisible power from God. R5637:3 The Bible makes a clean-cut distinction between the holy Spirit's operations upon men before Pentecost and since. R5637:3 God's holy Spirit qualifying Saul for king was a mechanical one and not the spirit of sonship. R5637:4

[1 Sam. 10:16]

He told him not —It was in harmony with the prophet's advice that Saul kept the matter of his anointing secret. R4197:1, R3218:2 So now, the people know not the Lord's Anointed, the matter is kept secret for a time. R3218:5

[1 Sam. 10:18]

Delivered you —Samuel impressed upon the people the fact that no king could have done them better service than their great King, Jehovah. R3218:2

[1 Sam. 10:19]

Your adversities —Calamities or evils sent as chastisements. A125
Before the LORD —Israel's solicitude to have the Lord make the choice is in contrast with present-day wire-pulling for office. R3218:1

[1 Sam. 10:20]

Benjamin was taken —Similarly today, the Lord is passing by the prominent people and choosing the little and the humble. R3218:5 Samuel cast lots so the people might know it was the Lord's choice. R3218:2, R5637:6

[1 Sam. 10:21]

And Saul —Meaning "Desired"; typifying, in this case, Christ. "The desire of all nations shall come." (Hag. 2:7) R3218:5
They sought him —In due time search will be made to find the Lord's Anointed and he will be found at his second advent. R3218:5

[1 Sam. 10:22]

Inquired of the LORD —The Christ of God will be the desired one of all nations. R3218:5
Hath hid himself —In marked contrast with some of the chief ones of the world and the nominal church. R3218:4, R5636:2
The stuff —Baggage piled up surrounding the camp. R3218:4, R5637:6

[1 Sam. 10:23]

Fetched him thence —The Lord's Anointed shall be found at his second advent. R3218:5

He was higher —Representing the largeness and grandeur of character in those whom the Lord is choosing. R3218:6

[1 Sam. 10:24]

None like him —"Chiefest among ten thousand; the one altogether lovely." (Song of Sol. 5:10, 16) R3218:6
The people shouted —So the world of mankind will shout for joy when they shall realize the presence of the Christ of God. R3218:6

[1 Sam. 10:25]

Write it in a book —By divine direction. R1145:3

[1 Sam. 10:26]

Went home —Displaying patience, wisdom, humility. R5636:1
Went with him —It is because we see Jesus to be the Father's choice that we unite ourselves to him. R3218:6
A band of men —Typifying the Little Flock. R3218:6

[1 Sam. 10:27]

Children of Belial —Children of the devil; representing those out of harmony with God, speaking evil of the members of the Body of Christ. R3219:1
They despised him —So mankind is not yet ready for the reign of the Royal Priesthood. R5636:2
He held his peace —Made no attempt to exercise authority, seeing that he had only half-hearted support from the people. R5635:2

[1 Sam. 11:6]

The Spirit of God —The spirit of wisdom or judgment pertaining to the government of Israel. E176
Came upon Saul —Energizing his mind mechanically without affecting him in any moral sense. E175 For as long as he was loyal to God. E176

[1 Sam. 11:12]

Bring the men —When the power of Messiah shall be manifested, the general sentiment of the world toward him will be loyalty. R3219:4
Put them to death —The great Armageddon is at hand. Thereafter the kingdom of Messiah will be popular and they will say, "Let those who oppose be put to death." R5636:2

[1 Sam. 11:13]

Not a man —But the Messiah will show mercy toward those who, during the darkness of the present time, have spoken evil of him. R3219:4 The king was wise and generous. R5635:5

[1 Sam. 11:14]

Gilgal —One of several prominent places for public gatherings at which Samuel was in the habit of holding court as judge. R3222:3

[1 Sam. 11:15]

They made Saul king —The interim had given time for the appreciation of their new king. So, the influence of the Church, after anointing and before coronation, will have a helpful influence upon the world. R4199:1

[1 Sam. 12:5]

Have not found ought —Every family member, similarly, should be able to call fellow-members to witness their faithfulness. R4199:3
He is witness —Of his spotlessness, his integrity as a judge. R4193:3 A wonderful tribute. In our day, however, even the noblest officials have their traducers and backbiters. R3222:3

[1 Sam. 12:9]

King of Moab —"Moab is my washpot" (Psa. 108:9) to cleanse Israel from their defilements. R4199:5

[1 Sam. 12:12]

Nay —Concluding that their disasters were not punishments, but the result of poor political organization. R4199:5

[1 Sam. 12:14]

Ye and also the king —A sin by the king would mean a national sin, for which the people as well as the king would be punished; unlike sins of the judges. R4200:3

[1 Sam. 12:17]

That ye may perceive —Corroborating his declaration that their calling for a king was a sin by the people. R4200:3

[1 Sam. 12:18]

And rain that day —Ordinarily it does not rain in Palestine from the end of April to the beginning of October. R3223:3

[1 Sam. 12:22]

Will not forsake —Israelites indeed in spiritual Babylon. R4200:2

[1 Sam. 12:23]

To pray for you —This illustrates the grandeur of Samuel's character. He seems to have none of the animosities which some smaller creature might have. R3223:6

[1 Sam. 12:24]

With all your heart —A loyal heart will control all the products of life. R4201:3
Great things —With even greater force for spiritual Israel. R4201:5

[1 Sam. 13:5]

Thirty thousand —A copyist's error, should be three thousand. R4206:2

[1 Sam. 13:9]

He offered —Without authority to do so. R5638:2, R3240:2 Zeal, disregarding divine instruction, is not approved. R4207:1 Similarly, Christians sometimes undertake to do the work of others, "busy-bodies." (1 Peter 4:15) R4206:5
The burnt offering —Perhaps this failure of Saul to recognize his typical mediator typifies fleshly Israel's rejection of Christ's mediatorial work 3 1/2 years after the kingdom in embryo was set up at the first advent. R4018:2*

[1 Sam. 13:12]

I forced myself —He sinned presumptuously when he should have waited for the deliverance which God alone could give. R1887:3

[1 Sam. 13:13]

Hast done foolishly —Apparently King Saul was not evilly intentioned, but lacked proper respect and reverence for the Lord, as with some in spiritual Israel today. R5647:1
Hast not kept —This may be said to be the beginning of Saul's rejection by the Lord. R3224:2 See comments on verse 9 from R4018:2*.

[1 Sam. 13:14]

Shall not continue —Yet God did not take the kingdom from Saul at once. There was time for repentance and reformation. R1887:6 Jonathan would otherwise have been the next king. R1907:3
Sought him a man —David. This was said about the time of David's birth. Similarly, God chose Jacob and Paul before they were born, and has doubtless so chosen others. R3225:3
His own heart —In the sense of being full of faith in God and aiming aright. R3238:3; Q200:T Not a testimony to the perfection of either the youth or the man, but rather to his fitness for the office. R1996:2

[1 Sam. 13:19]

No smith —The Israelites were poorly armed for this reason. R5638:1

[1 Sam. 14:1]

Not his father —Indicating his great love for his father. R1907:3

[1 Sam. 14:6]

Will work for us —Jonathan had a strong faith in the power of God on their behalf. R1907:6

[1 Sam. 14:15]

A very great —Elohim, strong, power, great, in connection with inanimate things. E69

[1 Sam. 14:39]

Jonathan my son —Indicating Saul's great love for Jonathan. R1907:6

[1 Sam. 15:2]

Amalek —A branch of Esau's family related to the Israelites and the Arabs of today. R4207.2

[1 Sam. 15:3]

Go and smite Amalek —Typical of wilful sinners of the next age. F174 The people of the land of Canaan had allowed their cup of iniquity to come to the full. R5663:5 These Amalekites, Sodomites and others were set forth as examples of God's just indignation and his ultimate destruction of evil-doers. OV227:5; A112The Lord used Israel as his sword to enforce his judgment. R4207:3 No injustice, as the Amalekites were already under the death sentence. F174
And utterly destroy —Did not mean they went to eternal torture. R3224:6 Under divine arrangement, when iniquities have reached their full, punishment is to be expected. R5647:6, R3225:1 As examples of God's just indignation and determination to destroy evil-doers; examples which will be of service not only to others, but also to themselves when their day of judgment or trial comes. HG345:6
And spare them not —The death by the sword was with much less pain than if it had been by pestilence. R3224:6

[1 Sam. 15:4]

200,000 footmen —Little more than one-third of the number that left Egypt. (Num. 1:45, 46) HG362:3

[1 Sam. 15:9]

People spared Agag —Many are disposed to destroy the foolish things connected with sin, but to save alive the king sin. R3225:3
Not utterly destroy —Showing too slack an appreciation of the Lord's word. R4208:1

[1 Sam. 15:11]

Is turned back —Saul had not misunderstood, but had with considerable deliberation violated instructions. R3225:1, R5431:2, R5647:6

[1 Sam. 15:13]

I have performed —To a considerable extent hypocritical. R3225:1, R5431:2, R5648:1

[1 Sam. 15:14]

Bleating of the sheep —Israel was not to destroy their enemies for their own advantage and enrichment but to act as the agent of the Lord in executing his decree. R3225:2, R5648:1

[1 Sam. 15:15]

To sacrifice —Fallen human nature ever seeks to justify itself in its disobedience to God. R5431:3

[1 Sam. 15:16]

This night —The night preceding, because in Jewish reckoning their day began in the evening. R5648:1

[1 Sam. 15:17]

When thou wast little —It is only the humble that God can exalt and use. R1888:4, R4197:4 Christians must likewise be taller than their fellows in respect to character, but still humble. R4197:4
Anointed thee king —The exaltation of Saul proved too great a temptation. R1888:4

[1 Sam. 15:19]

Fly upon the spoil —A selfish desire for things which the Lord has condemned. R4208:1 Imitating the robber nations about them. R3225:2

[1 Sam. 15:20]

I have obeyed —Saul had grown more self confident and less reliant upon the Lord, less attentive to the Lord's commands. R5648:2

[1 Sam. 15:21]

But the people —A man-fearing spirit, fearing the reproaches of the people. R4208:1
To sacrifice —See comments on 1 Sam. 15:15 from R5431:3.

[1 Sam. 15:22]

To obey —Obedience to God demands that we strive to be just in deed and word and thought. R5430:6 A man must be just before he is generous. R5430:6To obey God is a duty of the very highest type. R5431:3
Better than sacrifice —No sacrifice will be acceptable unless we first obey his word. R5431:2, R5647:3 Israel often mistakenly felt that their injustices could be righted by sacrifice. R5430:2 Before we can make much development in the cultivation of sacrificial love we must learn to have a love of justice. R5430:5 How careful it should make us to inquire what the will of the Lord is. SM438:3 How many of those who have heard the call to "Come out of" Babylon need to heed the instructions of this lesson. R3224:3, R5431:1, R5647:3

[1 Sam. 15:23]

Sin of witchcraft —Human wilfulness trusts to erring human judgment in preference to the infallible divine judgment. R1888:1
Idolatry —Human wilfulness adores and seeks to please self rather than God. R1888:1

[1 Sam. 15:26]

I will not return —Hence absurd to suppose that Samuel would hold any conference with Saul arranged by the witch of Endor. HG726:5

[1 Sam. 15:35]

No more to see Saul —Had no further dealings with him in any way, showing that the manifestations to the witch of Endor were the work of the fallen angels. R2172:3 It was no longer Samuel's province to go to Saul respecting the interests of the kingdom. R4209:1
Samuel mourned —As a father over a wayward son. R1888:2 Having a feeling of compassion for those who were out of the way. R5648:5 So we feel a deep interest in matters and persons of our intimate association. R4209:1

[1 Sam. 16:1]

How long wilt thou mourn —A slight reproof. R4209:2
I will send thee —When our hopes and aims have failed us, the Lord bids us look in another direction. R4209:2

[1 Sam. 16:2]

Say, I am come —If the whole truth would do injury, then it is the course of wisdom and love to withhold the injurious element. R4209:5

[1 Sam. 16:4]

Comest thou peaceably —Does your coming mean judgments of the Lord upon us, or blessings? R4209:5, R3226:2

[1 Sam. 16:5]

To sacrifice —The Ark being in the hands of the Philistines, the Tabernacle services had been discontinued. R3226:3
Sanctify yourselves —By washing, and with clean clothes, drawing nigh to the Lord with their hearts, typifying the justification and sanctification which the Gospel age Church enjoys. R3226:3
The sacrifice —An acknowledgment of sin and thankfulness to the Lord for his mercy; a consecration of obedience. R4209:6

[1 Sam. 16:6]

Looked on Eliab —Judging from the human standpoint, Eliab was the most suitable person, but not so in the Lord's sight. R3226:3

[1 Sam. 16:7]

Looketh on the heart —The mind, the intention, the endeavor. R5947:4 It behooves us, then, to see that our hearts are loyal, faithful and obedient. R1902:4 He knows to what extent you are striving against sin. CR335:1 If he sees earnest endeavor to do his will he will cover the deficiencies and imperfections with the merit of our Savior. R5757:5 And not on the social, intellectual, moral or educational position of those he would honor. "Ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the flesh are called." (1 Cor. 1:26) R3226:5

[1 Sam. 16:8]

Jesse —Doubtless one of the elders of the city of Bethlehem. R3226:1

[1 Sam. 16:10]

Not chosen these —There was some unfitness in his heart. R4210:1

[1 Sam. 16:11]

Keepeth the sheep —David was counted by his brethren too insignificant to be considered in this connection, so also are those whom the Lord is now choosing for his heavenly kingdom. R3226:4
Will not sit down —To the feast of which they were about to partake, celebrating a communion with the Lord. R3227:1
Till he come —A feast of fat things for the whole world cannot be participated in until the justifying and sanctifying sacrifice has been killed and the Anointed One comes. R3227:1

[1 Sam. 16:12]

A beautiful countenance —David was fair complexioned, with auburn hair, and about 18 to 20 years old. R4210:1, R3225:3
Goodly to look to —He had not wasted the precious spring-time of life in sowing wild oats. R1901:3
This Is he —One who aptly prefigured Christ. R1901:2; B255

[1 Sam. 16:13]

Anointed him —Samuel probably privately informed David of the meaning of the anointing but his father and brethren probably did not understand. R3226:2 As David was anointed years before he became king, so Christ and the Church receive their anointing years before the Kingdom's establishment. PD39/50; SM601:1; CR367:1; Q501:4 We, as members of Christ's Body, have in our anointing of the holy Spirit a recognition of our coming kingship and joint-heirship with him if we remain faithful. SM601:1
Came upon David —The spirit of wisdom and judgment pertaining to government. Note his subsequent discreetness. E176 David means "beloved"; we are "accepted in the Beloved." (Eph. 1:6) Each Body member must be beloved, else he cannot be acceptable. R3226:4, R4210:4; PD39/50 The reigns of David and Solomon picture the great work of the Lord's Anointed: David's, the work of the Church in the flesh; and Solomon's, the work of the Church glorified. R1901:3, R2010:4

[1 Sam. 16:14]

But the Spirit —Previously energizing Saul's mind. E176
An evil spirit —A spirit of sadness, dejection and loss of confidence. E176
From the LORD —Due to the Lord's dealings with him. E176

[1 Sam. 16:23]

Evil spirit from God —The spirit of melancholy due to the Lord's dealings with him. E176

[1 Sam. 17:2]

Set the battle —Evidently the opposing forces were fairly well matched and neither cared to make the attack. R4215:6

[1 Sam. 17:4]

Goliath —Probably a descendant of Anak. R5662:1
Six cubits and a span —By an 18-inch cubit, would represent 9'9''. R4216:1 About 10 feet high and probably stout in proportion as indicated by the weight of his armor, spear and sword. R3230:2 There is nothing improbable in the story of Goliath. Encyclopedia Brittanica lists several giants of similar size. R4216:1

[1 Sam. 17:5]

Five thousand shekels —220 pounds. R5662:2

[1 Sam. 17:7]

Weaver's beam —Nearly three inches thick. R5662:2
Six hundred shekels —25 pounds. R5662:2

[1 Sam. 17:17]

David —Then a young man of about 21 years. R3230:2
To the camp —About 20 miles from Bethlehem. R4216:2

[1 Sam. 17:23]

Goliath by name —Representing Satan and all who are on his side seeking to bring the Lord's people into bondage to errors or sins. R3230:5 The hosts of doubt and skepticism are led about by the great giant of unbelief. R3230:6 Goliath may properly represent pride, backed by worldliness. Another giant is fear, distrust; another sectarian influence. R3231:1The downward tendencies of our flesh must be killed, must be beheaded, as was Goliath. R4217:2

[1 Sam. 17:29]

Is there not a cause —One approved by God. R5662:4

[1 Sam. 17:32]

David —Type of Christ. R1901:2; B255

[1 Sam. 17:34]

A lion —As David, after being anointed, encountered the lion, so Jesus, after being anointed, endured a great fight with the Adversary. R3230:5

[1 Sam. 17:36]

Lion and the bear —Christians should be daily alert to overcome little weaknesses and frailties. R5662:5 Every battle we fight and every victory we win through faith in God develops strength for future conflicts. R1902:4 Typifying the wolves, who get into the fold in sheep's clothing, who would destroy the sheep. R3142:3

[1 Sam. 17:38]

Saul —At this time being king, though David had already been privately anointed. R3230:1

[1 Sam. 17:39]

Not proved them —David found that it would require considerable time to learn how to use such armor. R3230:3
Put them off —Having faith, we need no carnal weapons, no armor of human invention is of use to us. R1902:1

[1 Sam. 17:40]

His sling —Which he had thoroughly practiced. R1902:4
He drew near —First our strife is in our own hearts; secondarily against public evils. R5662:5

[1 Sam. 17:42]

The Philistine —See comments on 1 Sam. 17:23.
David —As David risked his life for the deliverance of Israel, so our Lord Jesus risked and sacrificed his life for the deliverance of antitypical Israel. R3230:5

[1 Sam. 17:43]

Am I a dog —According to tradition, when the giant laughed and threw his head backward his helmet fell off or the visor opened. R5662:4, R4216:4,R3230:4
With staves —A club. Probably Goliath did not notice the sling. R3230:3

[1 Sam. 17:45]

Name of the LORD —Strong in his faith in the Lord, who was able to give him victory and deliver his people. R3230:4, R5662:2

[1 Sam. 17:46]

Will the LORD —A faith gradually developed in previous victories over lesser foes helps to give courage and strength for battling with the most terrifying giants we may encounter. R5662:4

[1 Sam. 17:49]

Smote —Many in the tribe of Benjamin could throw such sling stones to a hair's breadth. (Judg. 20:16) R3230:5, R4216:4
In his forehead —The neck and a portion of the head were exposed, and David's stone struck the vital spot of the forehead. R3230:5

[1 Sam. 17:50]

David —"Beloved;" The Christ, Head and Body. R5662:5
With a sling —Shortly a sling-stone of truth is to smite down the great giant of sin and iniquity. R5662:5

[1 Sam. 18:1]

Knit with —The two beings were united. R205:3 Their affections, confidences and loves were interwoven. R3232:3
Loved him —Because of his nobility, courage, honesty, faithfulness and, above all, his trust in God. R3232:6
As his own soul —The bond of union was the faith and devotion of each to God. R3232:6 Well represents the love of our Lord Jesus for his people. R3233:1 Also represents a love and friendship amongst the Lord's people, stronger and deeper than any earthly relationship. R3233:3

[1 Sam. 18:4]

And Jonathan —May be considered to be one of the grandest characters in the world. R4223:2 Doing what was derogatory to his own natural interests. R3232:3
Gave it to David —In recognition of the fact that he was the Lord's anointed, the Lord's choice for the kingdom by and by. R1908:1

[1 Sam. 18:8]

Saul —Perhaps pictures those who, in the nominal system, affect to be reigning now. R4219:1
Displeased him —Some are jealous because of the progress of present truth against the institutions of Babylon. R4219:1

[1 Sam. 18:10]

Evil spirit —Perhaps a fallen spirit or demon. R3231:6 An evil mind, a perverse mind or disposition. R4218:2, R3231:6 The spirit of sadness, dejection and loss of confidence. E176
From God —Due to the Lord's dealings with him. E176 Not of; apart from; contrary to the Lord. R3231:6, R4218:3
And he prophesied —Spoke unwise, improper, foolish things. R3231:6 Corresponds with the power of evil spirits exercised in the past. R4219:1

[1 Sam. 18:11]

Cast —Original word means simply a motion. Subsequently he did actually hurl the weapon. (1,Sam. 19:10) R3232:1
Javelin —The "Image of the Beast" may seek to destroy us with the javelin of bitter words and slander. R4219:2
Avoided —We shall not be injured as New Creatures no matter what the Lord may permit to come against us. R4219:2

[1 Sam. 18:12]

Afraid of David —"The darkness hateth the light." (John 3:19,20) The worldly feel a jealousy toward those who have more of the Lord's spirit than themselves. R3232:4

[1 Sam. 18:27]

Slew —The divine instructions to Israel were that the Philistines and all other occupants of Canaan should be utterly destroyed. R5663:5

[1 Sam. 19:2]

Delighted much —The love of Jonathan has become a proverb. R5663:2

[1 Sam. 19:6]

And Saul hearkened —Indicating Jonathan's great influence with his father. R1907:6

[1 Sam. 19:9]

The evil spirit —The reverse of the Lord's spirit of kindness, justice, love. R5663:1 Jealousy is the bitter fruit of selfishness gone to seed. It is the most terrible manifestation of selfishness. R5662:6

[1 Sam. 20:1]

David —Then about 21 years of age. R3232:2
Jonathan —The recognized heir to the throne, about 35 years of age. R3232:2

[1 Sam. 20:2]

He will show it me —Intimate confidence between father and son. R1907:6

[1 Sam. 20:5]

Third day —Showing that when a month has 30 days, the last day of a month and the first of the next are both kept as a New Moon. R4127:4

[1 Sam. 20:14]

And thou —When thou comest into the kingdom. R1908:2

[1 Sam. 20:15]

My house for ever —As you might be tempted to do when my descendants urge their claims to the throne. R1908:2

[1 Sam. 20:17]

To swear again —David kept his covenant in the kindness that he showed to Mephibosheth, Jonathan's son. (2 Sam. 9) R2010:6
He loved him —Jonathan's friendship, love, was not of the effervescent kind. It was the genuine article. R5664:2, R4223:2 The influences making for true friendship, true love, are from the Lord. It was because Jonathan realized that David was guided by the spirit of righteousness that he loved him. R5664:3 The king was made jealous; Jonathan, reversely, loved his rival. R4223:2

[1 Sam. 20:23]

The LORD be between —We are to know our brother according to the spirit, and not according to the flesh. R4247.6*

[1 Sam. 20:41]

Three times —An eastern custom expressive of humility and appreciation. R4224:1 In token of great respect for both the person and the office of his friend. R1908:1

[1 Sam. 22:2]

In distress —Due to the erratic, unjust course of Saul. R3239:2,1

[1 Sam. 22:3]

Be with you —As a place of safety. R4225:3

[1 Sam. 23:2]

Shall I go —We should never engage in battle without the assurance that the battle is the Lord's, nor forget that our weapons are not carnal weapons. R2015:3

[1 Sam. 23:16]

And Jonathan —In this instance reminding us of the attitude of the Ancient Worthies towards the glorified Church. R1908:5
In God —Their great bond of union was the faith and devotion of each to God. R3232:6

[1 Sam. 24:8]

And bowed himself —Shaw-kaw, worshipped. Worship of Christ is not displeasing to God. E73

[1 Sam. 24:9]

And David —Type of Christ. B255

[1 Sam. 25:8]

Give —Jewish Law provided that any hungry person might enter any farm and eat to his satisfaction. R3239:2

[1 Sam. 25:23]

Bowed herself —Shaw-kaw, worshipped. E73

[1 Sam. 26:7]

Within the trench —Within the space, or corral, formed by the camp wagons. R3239:2
At his bolster —To distinguish him as chief. This custom is still followed by the Bedouins of Arabia. R3239:2

[1 Sam. 26:9]

And David —Type of Christ. B255

[1 Sam. 26:11]

The LORD'S anointed —Saul had been anointed with special anointing oil, typifying the holy Spirit. To have made an assault upon him would have been to attack the Almighty's arrangements. R5673:2,R3239:3

[1 Sam. 26:22]

And David answered —He neither affirmed nor denied Saul's guilt. R3239:6

[1 Sam. 26:23]

To every man —According to his righteousness. R4225:6

[1 Sam. 26:24]

Eyes of the LORD —Not of King Saul. R3239:6

[1 Sam. 26:25]

Went on his way —Unwilling to trust himself to Saul's power. Illustrating that love for enemies need not lead us to be too readily convinced of reformation on their part until a reasonable time has shown that the profession of reformation is not merely a passing emotion. R3239:6

[1 Sam. 28:6]

Answered him not —He was out of fellowship with God. PD42/52 It is not for a moment supposable that God and Samuel, having refused to communicate with the king, would change and permit a witch, condemned by divine Law, to overrule the matter. PD42/52; R2172:3,4
Urim —The Urim and Thummim answers of the Lord to the inquiries of the people had ceased. R5615:5

[1 Sam. 28:7]

A familiar spirit —Familiar with the spirits who were disobedient in the days of Noah. PD42/52 These fallen angels seek to make void the Word of God despite being restrained in "chains of darkness." (Jude 6) R4976:2

[1 Sam. 28:8]

Disguised himself —Endeavored in vain to do so as "from his shoulders and upward he was higher than any of the people." (1 Sam. 9:2) R2172:2
Divine unto me —Make known. R755:4*

[1 Sam. 28:11]

Bring me up Samuel —Awaken Samuel. PD42/52

[1 Sam. 28:12]

Woman saw Samuel —The evil spirits caused to pass before the medium's mental vision the familiar likeness of Samuel. R2172:2

[1 Sam. 28:14]

And she said —Describing a mental or "astral" picture. HG726:2
Covered with a mantle —Saul did not enquire why Samuel wore the same old mantle as a spirit that he had worn as an earthly being. HG726:3
Saul perceived —When she described the mental (or astral) picture, Saul recognized it as Samuel. R2172:2, R4234:2 Saul saw nothing; the witch said she saw Samuel. PD42/52
And he stooped —He did not question how it could be that Samuel looked as old and stooped as before and wore a mantle if he was now a spirit being and far better off. R2172:2

[1 Sam. 28:15]

And Samuel said —The manner, style and sentiments of the dead prophet were assumed, the better to deceive. R2172:3 These "lying spirits" always seek to counterfeit the face, manner and disposition of the dead. R2172:3
Disquieted me —Corresponding to the Jewish belief that when a person had died he became unconscious in sheol, the grave waiting for a resurrection. R2172:3; HG726:4
To bring me up —Up from the grave, not down from heaven. R2172:3; HG726:4
Answereth me no more —Saul was easily deceived into thinking that while Samuel had refused to commune with him while alive, he had now been forced to commune with him by the powers of the witch. R2172:3
Neither by prophets —Hence Samuel would have had no right to give him any information which the Lord was unwilling to give him. HG726:5
I have called thee —His boldness in still attempting to ascertain the future is remarkable. He should have feared God's further displeasure in doing that which was forbidden. R4234:3

[1 Sam. 28:16]

LORD is departed —See comments on 1Sam. 28:6.
Become thine enemy —The familiar spirit, impersonating Samuel, foretold nothing which Saul himself did not anticipate. R2172:4

[1 Sam. 28:17]

LORD hath rent —Saul anticipated what he heard. He knew that the kingdom should be taken from him and his family. HG726:6

[1 Sam. 28:19]

And to morrow —Scholars say that the battle and the death of Saul occurred several days later.
Thou and thy sons —The familiar spirit erred—two of Saul's sons escaped and lived for years. R2172:5; HG727:1
Be with me —Would wicked Saul be with righteous Samuel? R754:6* From the standpoint of the general faith then, that all who die go to sheol, the grave. R2172:6
Host of Israel —The demons could see that one day's battle would probably settle the question; and since Saul was already panicstricken the death of the king and his household would be the only logical result. R2172:5, R4234:2
Into the hand —Not that Satan is a prophet, but he is a student and believer of God's Word. R265:5

[1 Sam. 30:8]

Shall I pursue —We should never engage in battle without the assurance that the battle is the Lord's, nor forget that our weapons are not carnal. R2015:3

[1 Sam. 31:1]

Mount Gilboa —In the vicinity of the Hill of Megiddo, or Armageddon. Di; OV268:1

[1 Sam. 31:4]

Fell upon it —"He ate of the fruit of his own way and was filled with his own devices." (Prov. 1:31) R3240:5 Saul committed suicide, lest falling alive into the hands of his enemies they would have tortured him. R3240:6

[1 Sam. 31:12]

Took the body —Thus they attested their recognition of the king's kindness to them. R4234:5
Burnt them there —Probably to prevent their further desecration. R3241:1